a. Examine the Patients

Rescuers have to examine patientsin five factors such as: unconsciousness, stop breathing, no pulse signal, bleeding,and broken bone.

1. Unconsciousness

How can we know that patients losttheir consciousness?We need to talk loudly withpatients in order to find out whether they still in conscious or not.

2. Stop Breathing

How can we know patients stopbreathing?We have to observe the patientswhether they have breathing movement or not, or putting our ear close to thepatients mouth or nose to find out that the patients still breath or not (5 to10 seconds).


3. No Pulse Signal

How can we know that the patients haveno pulse signal?

We have to use our fingers to pushslightly on the left or right of the patient’s throat, place your finger up anddown slightly to find blood vessels that transmit blood to the head (durationof 5 to 10 seconds).


4. Bleeding

How can we know that the patients arebleeding?

We have to watch carefully by oureyes over the patient’s body to find out whether the patients have heavybleeding or not.

There are three type of bleeding:

  • Bleeding through small blood vessels, the blood is in light red color and bleeds in small amount.
  • Bleeding through blood veins, the blood is in dark red color and it continuously bleeding.
  • Bleeding through big blood vessel, the blood is in light red and bleed very strong; they bleed fluctuate like pulse signal.


5. Broken Bone

How can we know that the patientshave broken bone?

We can know that the patients havebroken bone by:

  • The bone broken place appears differently from normal and it’s hurt when the patients move.
  • There is bruised and swell on the broken area.
  • Shock or consciousness