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b. Rescue

After knowing the situation and the bound of danger, you can rescue asfollow:


1. The Patients is Unconsciousness

People who unconsciousness lookslike those who sleeping. There are two types of unconsciousness:

  • Short term unconsciousness is caused by loosing blood, painfulness, shock, fear, feel tired, choking, or the throat is stuck with vomit or tongue.
  • Long term unconsciousness is caused by poisonous, using sleeping pill, damage to brain, for instance, the skull is cracked.


If the patient still unconscious after you have called loudly or slappedtheir shoulder, you should:

  • Loosen their cloth around the neck and hip in order to make it easier to breath.
  • Hyperextend the head and pull up the chin carefully to avoid the tongue fallen backwards to stop breading.
  • Examine the breath movement 5 to 10 seconds
  • Clean the mouth if there is vomit or something inside.
  • Lay the patient down carefully and face to the side, hyperextend the head, put the mouth downward, and lock the lags and arms to make the patient breath easier (recovery position).
  • Send the patients to hospital as fast as possible by put the patient in recovery position and check the breath frequently.
  • If the patient has injury on the head or the back, we should wait for doctor or rescue agent to arrive; if we move the patient in this situation, it could cause the situation to be more serious to the patient.


2. The Patient Is Not Breathing

Respiratory system plays an important role in human life. When we inhale theoxygen flow into the blood, then the blood produce carbon dioxide which flowout when we exhale.


Normally, there are 500 ml of air when we inhale once, which contain 21%of oxygen and when we exhale there are only 16% of oxygen.

            Breathing interval:

  • Adult: 12 – 20 times per minute
  • Children: 20-30 time per minute
  • Infant: 30-40 time per minute


If the patient stops breathing from 2 to 3 minutes, the patient’s brainwill not work because the brain can only work while the blood do not haveoxygen at this duration. However, if it’s above 5 minutes, it can cause damageto the brain, and the patient can be death.


Thus, if knowing that the patient does not breathing please:

  • Loosen the cloth around the neck and hip (shirt neck and belt).
  • Hyperextend the head carefully
  • Blow the air into the patient mouth twice by using the thumb and index finger to close the nose.
  • Check the pulse in 5 to 10 seconds
  • If there is a pulse please continue blow the air.
  • Pulse rate of:
    Adult: 12 – 15 times per minute
    Children: 20 – 25 times per minute
    Infant: 30 – 35 times per minute
  • Check breath and pulse every 2 minutes
    If there is no breath: Please continue blow the air into the patient’s mouth.
    If the patient breathes: Please put the patient in recovery position.


3. The Patient Has No Pulse:

The heart has a function in pushing blood to every part of the body. Ifthe patient has no pulse, it means the heart is stop working, and the patientcan die within 2 to 3 minutes.

If the patient has no pulse you have to:

  • Loosen the cloth around the neck and hip (shirt neck and belt).
  • Hyperextend the head carefully and check the breath; if no breath, blow the air in to patient’s mouth twice.
  • Check the pulse (5 to 10 seconds); if there is no pulse, you have to push the heart.
    a. For Adult:
    Put your palm on the chest (under the rib) and pull the finger forward then push by using your body weight to press 3 to 5 cm and press 60 to 80 times per minute and blow the air (do not press on rib).
    - Press 15 times and blow the air 2 times, repeat 4 times in 1 minute.

    b. For Children Above 1 Year:
    Use finger to press in fast speed of 80 to 100 per minute.
    - Press 5 times and blow the air in to the mouth once.

    b. For Infant Under 1 Year:
    - Use finger to press in fast speed of 100 to 120 times per minute.
    - Press 5 times and blow the air in to the mouth once.
    - Check the pulse every 2 minutes. If there is no pulse, please make the heart pressing and blow the air until the rescue agent will have arrived.


4. The Patient Is Bleeding:

Blood plays very important role in human body. If we loss too much blood,we can be die in 2 or 3 minutes. Circulatory system is a system of vessel thatheart act as a compressor. Normally, adult have blood about 5 to 6 liters whichis about 1 of 13 proportion of the hold body.

If the patient is bleeding you have to:

a. Press on the wound, if possible it’s better to use cheesecloth, scarf,or plastic glove.
b. Bandage the wound by 2 pieces of clean cheesecloth or cloth.

c. If it is still bleeding, bandage one more layer over the first layer.
d. If it is still bleeding, use your finger to press on the vein close to thewound to stop blood flow.

Heavy bleeding from the vein in high pressure can cause blood exhaustedfrom the circulatory system which lead to serious situation that can makepatient shock quickly. Bleeding like this can make patient die in 2 to 3minutes.


In case the about (stop bleeding) method is not effective or cannot stopbleeding in long distance, you can use flat rope with width of 4cm to 5cm bandageand twist it or use cross bandage 3 centimeters from the wound. To stopbleeding in such way cannot be used more then 30 minutes, and this method canbe used to stop bleeding on the hand or leg, it cannot be used with bleeding onneck or body.


If there is something stuck in the wound, you have to press near thatthing and bandage safely, but must not:

  • Press directly on that thing.
  • Remove that thing.
  • Using stop bleeding tools.


The Patient Has Broken Bone

What have to be done while waiting for doctor, or before transport tohospital?

When knowing that the patient has broken bone on the hand or leg, youmust:

  • Put the patient in a still position.
  • Maintain the patient in still position and hold the broken area.
  • For bone broken on the hand, we can use string, towel, or cloth to hold the injury place in still position.
  • Use piece of wood or metal which can hole or place the injury place still; however, it would be the best if the injury part can be hold and hang on the body.
  • In case the leg is broken, the patient should be bandaged as in the picture bellow:



  • If the patient feel dizzy or having short breath and fast, the patient should be lay down and put the head below the chest, and if possible the legs of the patient should be hanged up.


If patients with broken bone are not cureproperly, they can be come disable.

When knowing that the patient having broken boneon the hand or leg, you must:

  • Press softly on the injury area.
  • Put the leg straight.
  • Ask the patient to move themselves.
  • Making joint movement above or bellow the injury area.


In case the back bone is broken, you can notice that it hurt on the backand it hurt when patients move their hand or leg, and sometime it feels itchyor feel numb in patient’s feet or palms; so the patients have to stay still andrelax, waiting for people to lift and put on the patient on the flat wood andbring to hospital.

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