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You are in : Home > Safety in Driving Small Vehicles > 1 . Basic Driving Technique

To be a good driver you have to understand driving techniques.
The necessary basic techniques are listed bellow:

1.1 Before Driving
•    The drivers should prepare or adjust the seat and rear viewing mirror; and ware seat belt.
•    Should set gearbox to zero, and lift the emergency brake (For auto gearbox vehicle should set to P or N)
•    Start the engine
•    Look at the road and sign at least 5 seconds, if the road if free then it’s time to go.

1.2 Speed Up
•    Before step away from pedal (brake), clutch must first meet each other.
•    Release the emergency brake only when the engine has enough power, doing so to avoid fall back.
•    Increase the speed slowly and steadily.
•    To increase a lot of speed in wet road can cause the back of the car wavering and might lead to danger.

1.3 Stopping
When stopping, you have to think about the speed of your car and the distance in front of you. Normally, you have to push the brake ahead of your target and continue to where you want to stop.

When stopping, you have to follow the following instructions:
•    Look at the front view.
•    Look at the traffic behind you through rear view mirror.
•    Make right turn traffic sign.
•    Look at the unseen view on your right shoulder.
•    Step away from accelerator (slow down)
•    Move closer to the sidewalk on the right side.
•    Step stronger and stronger in steadily motion on the brake.
•    Step on clutch when the car is about to stop.
•    Maintain your feet on clutch and brake.
•    Lift the emergency brake (hand brake), and set the gear box to 0.
•    If you late to step on the clutch, the engine will wobble and stop.
•    If you step on the clutch too early, the wheel will move freely and it might lead to accident when it is in high speed.

1.4 Opening the Door

When opening the door of the car, you have to:
•    Unlock the door and open a little bit in order to see the traffic on the back.
•    Open the door larger.
•    Step off from the car, and close the door.

1.5 Handle Steering Wheel
•    Must hold the steering wheel by putting your hand opposite each other.
•    Must hold the steering wheel firmly with both hands.
•    It is dangerous to hold the steering wheel in one hand because if there is a sudden accident, you might not be able to turn the steering wheel fast and firm.

Method in Handling Steering Wheel
•    When driving forward:
Both hands must hold the steering wheel in opposite side of the circle which is about 9h 15 or 10h 10 o’clock. Both thumbs must press on the steering wheel.

•    When driving to the right or turning right:
Right hand must hold the top of the circle (Picture A) then turn the steering wheel to the right (Picture B) and loosen the left hand to let the wheel move. When stop turning, the right hand must move the wheel to original position (Picture C).

•    When driving to the left or turning left:
Left hand must hold the top of the circle (Picture A) then turn to the left (Picture B) and loosen the right hand to let the wheel move. When stop turning, use the left hand to move the wheel to original position (Picture C).

1.6 Go Backward
a. Going backward when start traveling:
•    Look around the back side clearly before enter the car because you cannot see thing or animal that stay behind your car clearly when you are inside the car.
•    Give turning left or right traffic sign enough time before turn left or right.
•    Go backward slowly by watching to the back and look through the back windows.

b. Going backward while traveling or about to stop:
•    Watch the back road carefully.
•    Give turning left or right traffic sign enough time before turn left or right.
•    Go backward slowly by watching to the back and look through the back windows.

1.7 Safety Space
To drive behind other vehicle on the same lane, drivers must maintain an acceptable space according to the driving speed between their car and the front car; driver must avoid hitting the front cars if they slow down or stop suddenly. The space is called “Safety Space”. Safety space is calculate by speed and time of reaction, which called “Time of Reaction”
a. Driver’s eyes saw obstacle or traffic light.
b. Optical nerve of the eyes transmits information to the brain.
c. The brain analyzes the information and decides to step on the brake (Giving             command)
d. This command is transmitted to the muscle of the leg through muscle nerve.
e. The muscle using power to lift the foot to step on the brake.
f. The muscle using power to press on the brake.
•    Base on experience, from point a. to f., it takes 1 second for people who have normal health.
•    For drivers who are tired or sleepy, the reaction time is 2 seconds.
•    For drivers who are drunk or using drug, the reaction time is more the 2 seconds. Because it takes longer time to response, that’s why it leads the above drivers to traffic accident.
•    In crowded place, drivers must maintain 1 seconds of safety space.
•    Beside crowded place, the safety space must maintain in 2 seconds.

Distance per Second

In order to make it easy in calculate distance per second, people should follow the following calculation:
For example:
•    40 km/h → 4 x 3 = 12m
•    50 km/h → 5 x 3 = 15m
•    60 km/h → 6 x 3 = 18m
•    90 km/h → 9 x 3 = 27m

1.8 Stopping Distance
All drivers should think about the distance to stop in order to avoid hitting things in the front. Stopping distance is calculated since the drivers saw the obstacle till the vehicle stop steadily at one place.

Stopping Distance = Distance Of Reaction + Distance Of Stepping On The Brake.

•    50 km/h : 5 x 5 = 25m
•    60 km/h : 6 x 6 = 36m
•    80 km/h : 8 x 8 = 64m
•    90 km/h : 9 x 9 = 81m

The stopping distance is long or short is depending on some factors like:
•    Type of road
•    Road condition
•    Weather condition
•    Carrying weight
•    Speed
•    Time of reaction
•    Brake condition
•    Air compression condition in the wheel
•    Tire surface condition

Must Remember:
•    On wet road the distance of stopping is twice longer then the distance on dry road.
•    If the speed increases 2 times, the distance of stopping is increases in 4 times.

1.9 Observation
•    Drivers who have safety in driving usually observe things around their car frequently.
•    Observation consists of observation the front view, back view and sides view.

1.9.1 View the Front
All drivers are looking frontward, but most of the drivers are look far enough.
    a. Must look in the front with distance at least 10 seconds.
    b. Must consider the road situation such as curve road, high ground, or low             ground.

1.9.2 View the Back and the Side
Must look at the rear view mirror carefully and must know the invisible side of the car.

a. View the Back
While driving on the road, drivers must look at the rear view mirror frequently; it should be every 5 to 10 seconds. If you’ve missed in looking at it, you would not know what happen in the back.

b. View the Invisible Side of the Car
You have to know that there is invisible area that you cannot view through the rear view mirror, so drivers must be carefully and watch the invisible area when turning left or right.

1.10 Making Sign
Other drivers will not know what you are going to do until you inform them, so you must make a sign to make known to others about what you are going to do. What are the sign that you have to make in order to inform others?

Using light of the vehicle to inform:
a. Changing Direction Traffic Light
•    When changing the lane to left or right, driver must make enough sign to inform others.
•    When turning left or right, drivers must make left or right turn sign correctly; and must make it 20 meters from the turning point. Then continue making sign until the car is going straight direction.
•    All vehicles that making turn left traffic light to inform that there is obstacle in the front and overtaking is not allow, must only does so when the vehicle behind is making left traffic sign to ask for overtaking. If the vehicles behind do not making sign to ask for overtaking, the front vehicles must not make left turning traffic sign to avoid confusing with left turning.

Using Direction Changing Sign When Closing to the Circle and Exit the Circle
•    Turning Right: When going close to the circle, drivers must make turn right traffic sign until the veridical has exited the circle.
•    Turning Left: When going close to the circle, drivers must make turn left traffic sign and when exit the circle, drivers must make right turn traffic light.
•    Going Straight: When going close to the circle, drivers must not make any direction changing sign, and when the drivers want to exit the circle, they must make right turn traffic sign.
•    Turning Back: When going close to the circle, drivers must make turn right traffic sign, and when the drivers want to exit the circle, they must make right turn traffic sign.

b. Stop Traffic Light:
When step on the brake to slow down or stop the car, the red light behind the car, which is brighter then the normal red light is the indicator that tell the other drivers who drive behind.

c. Warning Sign:
It’s informing the other drivers to be careful such as:
Driving slowly with a towed broken vehicle; or funeral procession, wedding procession, etc. Warning sign is not allowed to use to ask for moving ahead in narrow road or when enter or exit the house.

d. In Case Of Stopping Or Parking On The Road With No Light, Drivers Must Use:
•    Location light
•    Red light
•    Plate number’s light

e. When there is big rain, drivers must turn the low low beam light on:

f. When the vehicle is broken and it is necessary to stop on the road out of the crowed place, you have to put triangle sign and making warning sign.

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