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You are in : Home > Safety in Driving Small Vehicles > 2 . Driving in Special Condition

Driving in special conditions are:
•    Weather condition
•    Light condition
•    Traffic condition
•    Road condition
•    Driver’s condition

2.1 Weather condition
a. Driving on wet road:
On wet road the distance of stopping is more then twice of the dry road because the touching surface of the tire and the road is in small amount. So you have to drive slowly and steadily, and must follow the following instruction:
•    Forbid to push the brake stronger then needed (to push the brake strongly can lock the wheel which cause the vehicle to goes waving or turning direction. If the tired is locked, you have to use brake technique.
•    Must turn left or right as carefully as possible.
•    Must slow down enough at the curve road, and must not push the brake.
•    Forbid to drive closely to the front vehicle, and must reserved long safety space.

b. Driving Under Heavy Rain:
When it is raining, the water is accumulated on the road. Even how good the surface of the tire is, it still cannot make the tire touch on the road correctly. When driving fast, the amount of water is increasing under the wheels which cause the vehicle to be flying like, this effect called “aquaplaning”.

If you feel that the wheels is not touching the road, you must slow down by left your feet from out of accelerator, and must not push the brake or turn the steeling wheel strongly because it can cause the vehicle to shift to the side.

c. Driving Through the Deep Water:
When driving through the deep water, the brake of your vehicle will be damp or wet. When the brake is damp, it can be weak, ineffective or shaking. This can cause the vehicle to shift to the side.

If you cannot avoid traveling through the water, you have to:
•    Show down
•    Step softly on the brake
•    When gone out of the water, you have to test the brake by push and pull many times to make the brake dry faster. In this testing process you have to look at the vehicles behind through the rear view mirror, and make sure there will be no accident.

d. Driving In the Strong Wind:
•    When there is strong wind, the wind force will push your car to the other lane, so to avoid danger you have to slow down and drive carefully.

e. Driving In Hot Weather:
When driving in the hot weather, the driver must:
•    Check the temperature of the wheel once every 2 hours or 160 kilometer per hour. Air pressure increase according to the temperature, but we cannot release the air because when the temperature drop, the air pressure will also drop. If we touch the tire and it is hot, we must stop the car and let it cold down, if not it can be blow up or burned.
•    Must fill enough machine fuel, because besides making machine to run smoothly fuel can also cool down the engine.
•    Must fill enough water and while driving, the drivers must frequently check heat panel. If the temperature rises above the normal level, it can cause the engine to fault and burn, so the drivers must stop the car immediately.
•    Check the engine belts to find out the level of loosen, wear out, and cracked surface.
•    Watch carefully on the rubber that melts on the road because it can cause the car to slip very strong.
•    Driving in high speed can cause the engine and tires to heat up, so when the weather is hot the driver must drive in normal speed.

2.2 Light Condition
Light can affect driving as follow:

a. In Day Time:
In day time, the low or bright sunlight can affect the vision of the drivers; if the light is too bright, it can dazzle the driver’s eyes. So drivers should wear classes. But when the light is low such as dusk or dawn, it causes the driver difficult to see so drivers must drive carefully and slow down the driving speed.

b. At Night Time:

Driving at night is more dangerous then in day time.
There are 3 factors that cause accidents:

Human Factor (The Driver):

•    The driver’s eyes can be dazzled or invisible in short time when the light from other car bright direct to the eyes. If the light bright into the driver’s eyes in 2 seconds it can cause accident; so you must not look in to the source of light, you have to look at the right side.
•    At night there might be drunk drivers or sleepy drivers, those drivers cannot see clearly or response fast, so there is high proportion of accident.

Road Factor:

Usually at night there is not enough light for drivers to see through like in day time. There are street light in some urban area, and most are not. More over, in rural area there is no light at all.

So the drivers are fully depend on low beam light and far light. Even you have low beam light or far light to light up the road, but it might not clear and cause you to confuse some views; beside it is difficult to see people who travel on foot, bicycle, tricycle, or cart so you have to drive in a speed that you can stop your car on time.

Human Factor:
At night, low beam light or far light are the important light source for you and other traveler; and you cannot see something beyond the low beam light or far light like you can see in day time.
•    Must turn on low beam light or far light half an hour after the sunset till half an hour before the sunrise.
•    Must turn on far light on the road which has no road light.
•    Must turn on low beam light on the road which has road light.
•    Low beam light allow you to see in the range of 35 meters to 75 meters, and far light allow you to see in the rage of 100 meters to 160 meters, so you have to adjust your driving speed according to the stopping distance that you can see.
•    When meeting the other vehicle in opposite direction in the range of 100 meters to 160 meters, drivers must switch far light to low beam light.
•    When driving after the other vehicle in the range of 100 meters to 160 meters, drivers must switch far light to low beam light.
•    If you do not switch to low beam light, the light will blind the drivers in the front.
•    If there is dirt in low beam light or far light, its brightness can be effective only 50%; so you have to clean it and have good care of it. The other light sources also have essential benefit.
•    Windshield and rear view mirror must be cleaned. If they are dirty, the light at night can reflect and blind the driver’s eyes or make the visual unclear.

2.3 Traffic Condition

Traffic condition changes according to time and places, and the driving speed is also changes according to such conditions. So the driver must drive carefully and drive with in appropriate speed; and avoid disturbing others or causing traffic accident.

In Phnom Penh city, rush hour happen in the morning when people go to school or work, and when people leave school or work in the evening.

2.4 Road Condition

a. Road Surface

Good driver must know how to use appropriate speed according to road condition such as width of the road, road surface, and the possibility of accident.
•    On the road with sand or gravel can cause the car to slip to the side, so you must slow down and must not push the brake strongly or turning the steering wheel strongly.
•    If the back part of the car slides to which direction, you have to spin the steering wheel to that direction.
•    Waving road can cause the car to slide left or right, so you have to slow down.
•    Bumping road can cause the car to slide strongly, or when the drivers escape the hole on the road without informing others, it might cause traffic accident. So drivers have to slow the speed down.

b. Curve Road
Before driving in to the curve road, drivers must slow the speed down to make it balance with the curve of the road because driving on the curve road there is a centrifugal force that can push the car to drive out of the road or roll over. If the speed increases in 2 times, the centrifugal force increases in 4 times.

Red Arrow Indicate Centrifugal Force

The following figure shows the appropriate speed or dangerous speed in driving on curve road according to its radius.

c. High Slope Road

When driving up slope, drivers must use higher speed than on plain surface road.

•    When driving up slope, suddenly you saw the speedometer drop; you must change the gearshift to smaller number and push the accelerator immediately.
•    When driving up the high slope road you have to use gearshift number 2 or 1 before go on the high slope to prevent the care to roll back. So people should not drive close to the car that is driving on the high slope.
•    Divers must be carefully when driving close to the top of the slope because drivers cannot see what is on the other slop of the hill. So drivers must drive on the right hand side and must not drive close to the car in the front.

d. Down Slope Road
Before driving down slope drivers must use appropriate gearshift number, drivers must use smaller gearshift number then going up slope because it has gravity that make the car move faster then normal. When driving down the low slope, driver should use number 3 or 2 gearshift; and on the high slope should use gearshift number 1.

If you go down a long distance slope, you have to use engine brake to slow down the car rather than using brake pedal, it means that you have to use low gearshift number and must use brake pedal in necessary case; because using brake pedal to slow down the car in long distance can cause the brake to heat up and it can cause the brake be weaken or damaged.

Before driving down from a sloppy hill, one should properly prepare his gear to a lower level than going up a hill for the gravity make the car speed even faster than usual. When going down a medium slope hill one should use set his gear to 2 or 3 and for very sloppy hill the 1 would be a good choice.
    If a driver is moving in a far sloppy hill, driver should use the engine rather the break, meaning to lower gear level proper and use the brake whenever necessary, to slow down the car. Since slowing down by using brake while going for a long sloppy drive makes it hotter to the brake and weakens or broke the break.
    Never lower your gear while moving down for it might not work and move to neutral which accelerate the car in an uncontrollable manner which eventually cause incident. In this same drive, driver should keep a safe distant longer than normal drive, and for narrow road drive the one go up hill get the priority to move first.
    Some drivers believe that releasing the brake will cool it down, however, test show that the brake won’t cold down fast enough. Use the brake seriously often produces more heat than keep pushing the break.
    Parking your car on a slop       
    Keep your car next to the side and pull the hand brake firmly.
1)    If your car noses face up, you need to steer your wheel out to avoid slippery and keep your car next to the side of the road. In this case set your gear box to number 1.
2-5- Driver condition
Conditions that may affect driving include:
2)    Sight  
3)    Physical Health
4)    Emotional status
5)    Alcoholic level and drug
A-    Sight
While driving 80% of information you get from your eyes, so your eyes are very important for driving. One should move the eyes in every two second to avoid keeping your eyes fix on something longer than necessary. You should glance at the rear mirror once in five or ten second to aware about the changing surrounded situation.
B-    Physical Health  
Tired, dizzy and other form of bad health affect driver concentrations, there for when driver feel tired, dizzy or other bad status do not drive.
C-    Emotion Status
Anger, concern and stress can also reduce your concentration and may cause hasty or carelessness.  
D-    Alcoholic Level and Drug
Consuming alcoholic drink and some drugs may affect driver decision, concentration, and reaction. If you use medicine, you should consult a doctor in case the drug affect your ability to drive, don’t drive. Consuming alcoholic drink also make an unsafe trip.

Alcohol level in the blood:
    0.3 gram of alcohol per liter of blood is dangerous
    0.5 gram of alcohol per liter of blood make danger level double
    0.8 gram of alcohol per liter of blood make danger level increase ten time as much
-The alcohol dissolve from the blood in an hour is 0.15 gram.
-If a drive alcohol rate is between 0.5 and 0.75 per liter of blood, he’ll be fined 12.000 Reil.  
-If a drive alcohol rate is above 0.8 per liter of blood, he’ll be sentence from 6 days to 6 month or charged in cash from 250 thousand to 1 million Reil.
75Kg Human drink:
    Alcohol rate  (g/1) while empty stomach    Alcohol rate  (g/1) after meal
6)    Beer 0.5 liter (6 degree)
7)    Visky wine(45 degree)    0.45
0.30    0.30
     - The alcohol rate changes base on weight, sex, and health condition.
     - The more one drink, the more alcoholic substance remain in the body.
2-6 Night Driving
     - Law state that car is allowed to turn the light on half an hour before sunset and sunrise.
     - Driver need to turn the light on whenever the sight wouldn’t be clear without light.

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